Footnote 23

See, e.g., id. at 483-84; Stephen B. Burbank, Drifting Toward Bethlehem or Gomorrah? Vanishing Trials and Summary Judgment in Federal Civil Cases, 1 J. Empirical Legal Stud. 591, 593 (2004); Shadur, supra note 14, at 5 (referring to "the growth of the summary judgment industry as a replacement for the civil trial").