Footnote 4

By 1999, about 80 percent of the police departments in the nation's 50 largest cities had some kind of civilian oversight, according to a survey conducted by Professor Samuel Walker and Doctoral Student Carol Archbold of the Department of Criminal Justice, University of Nebraska at Omaha. See Walker and Archbold (2000: 2). Their article will be published next year by the Journal of Dispute Resolution at the University of Missouri School of Law.